For Cu-Zn SOD and catalase was carried out by real time PCR using aLightCycler and the DNA double-stranded specific SYBR Green I dye for detection (Roche, Basel, Switzerland).Data analysis and statistics All results are expressed as mean ?SEM of n experiments, n representing the number of mice. The sensitivities to vasoconstrictor agonists are expressed as EC50 values which represent the half maximally effective molar concentration. Statistical evaluation was carried out using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) or unpaired Student’s t-test. The level of significance was P < 0.05.Authors' contributionsAT carried out organ bath and Western blot experiments, and participated in the design of the study. KS carried out RTPCR experiments, and participated in the design of the study. LJ and IC carried out organ bath experiments (heart and blood vessels). JA participated in the design of the study and in the redaction of the manuscript. RA conceived of the study, and participated in its design, redaction and coordination.AcknowledgementsAntonia Tabernero was supported by the "Fondation pour la Recherche M icale". This work was supported by "Fonds de Recherche Hoechst Marion Roussel (GIP HMR)": Exploration Fonctionnelle et Analyse Globale de l'Expression des G es. The authors would like to thank Dr Gonzalez F.J for providing the PPAR alpha knock out mice (Mol. Cell. Biol. 15: 3012-3022, 1995).
BMC PharmacologyResearch articleBioMed CentralOpen AccessRelationship between PPAR activation and NO on proximal tubular Na+ transport in the ratMohammad A Newaz, Kasturi Ranganna and Adebayo O Oyekan*Address: College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Texas Southern University, 3100 Cleburne Avenue, Houston, TX 77004. USA Email: Mohammad A Newaz – firstname.lastname@example.org; Kasturi Ranganna – Ranganna_K@tsu.edu; Adebayo O Oyekan* – Oyekan_AO@tsu.edu * Corresponding authorPublished: 06 February 2004 BMC Pharmacology 2004, 4:1 This article is available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2210/4/Received: 07 August 2003 Accepted: 06 PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29049466 February?2004 Newaz et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26756305 Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in all media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the article’s original URL.AbstractBackground: Nitric oxide (NO) regulates renal proximal tubular (PT) Na+ handling through modulation of Na+-K+ ATPase. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor (PPAR), a nuclear transcription factor, is expressed in PTs and has been reported to influence NO generation/activity in renal tissues. This study tested the hypothesis that PPAR interacts with NO and thereby affects renal tubular Na+ transport. Urinary excretion of nitrite (UNOXV) and Latanoprost acid Na+ (UNaV) and PT Na+ transport (Na+-K+ ATPase activity) were determined in rats treated with clofibrate (250 mg/kg i.p) or WY14643 (45 mg/kg; i.p.), a PPAR ligand, 2 NaCl (orally), clofibrate/NaCl, L-NAME, an inhibitor of NO production (100 mg/kg; orally), L-NAME/Clofibrate. Results: Clofibrate or WY14643 increased PPAR expression by 106 ?7 (p < 0.05) and 113 ?8 (p < 0.05), respectively. Similarly, clofibrate and WY14643 increased expression of MCAD, a downstream target protein of PPAR by 123 ?8 (p < 0.05) and 143 ?8 (p < 0.05), respectively. L-NAME attenuated clofibrate-induced increase in PPAR expression by 27 ?2 (p < 0.05) but did not affect MCAD expression. UNOXV excretion increased 3? fold in rats treated with clofibrate, WY.
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